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Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history ) was a ruling dynasty in China between 9; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty.It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy.This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as first discernment of true north using a compass.The Song Dynasty is divided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song.During the Northern Song (Chinese: , 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty.During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou).

In 1234, the Jin Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song.Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1259 while besieging a city in Chongqing.His younger brother Kublai Khan was proclaimed the new Great Khan, though his claim was only partially recognized by the Mongols in the west.In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China.The population of China doubled in size during the 10th and 11th centuries.This growth came through expanded rice cultivation in central and southern China, the use of early-ripening rice from southeast and southern Asia, and the production of abundant food surpluses.

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